Children talk more and love to be heard at this stage (3 – 5 years) as speech becomes more fluent and structured. They strive to complete simple projects, play more collaboratively, and are more aware that actions have consequences.
Key Developmental Domains
Self Awareness and Identity: Children are aware of their unique identity.
Self-esteem: Children have good and positive feelings about themselves.
Self Confidence-Competence: Children have confidence in their abilities to seek challenging exploratory experiences.
Socialization-Cooperative Play: Children engage in group play and develop friendships.
Emotional Expressions: Children can recognize their emotions and feelings, give words to them, and can self-regulate.
Sense of Empathy: Children can recognize and understand the feelings of others and act kindly towards others.
Moral Consciousness: Children develop a sense of right and wrong and follow the rules.
Conflict Resolution: Children can resolve problems and find mutual solutions with playmates.
Patience and Persistence: Children learn to wait and try again when they fail in the first instance.
Sense of Community: Children learn that the group is a shared space and needs to care for group resources and the environment.
Awareness of Rules: Children follow the rules for playing games and sometimes change the practices as the game progresses.
Group Guiding Norms: Children understand group rules and can follow a 3-part command.
Cognitive Development: Language, Communication & Literacy
Speaking: Children can express themselves clearly. They can tell their full name, age, as well as their street name and city.
Comprehension: Children can understand language and instructions.
Reading: Children enjoy hearing stories and can read for pleasure and identify with the event and characters.
Vocabulary: They demonstrate knowledge and usage of many words and phrases.
Sentence Construction: Children structure sentences to include subject, verb, and object when speaking.
Alphabet Mastering: Children show knowledge of the alphabet and can identify them.
Phonics: Children show understanding of the letter sounds and spoken words.
Writing: Children engage in different emergent writing skills.
Questioning: Children seek meaning and clarity by asking “why?” and “how” questions.
Directional Expression: Children use words to show direction and location (on, off, in, out, under, over, etc.).
Prediction: Children can predict the next event from a story read.
Analytical & Mathematical Development
Questioning: Children ask “why?” and “how” questions to seek clarity.
Time Concept: Children have basic knowledge of time and the difference between past and present.
Number Concept: Children do rote counting and recognize numbers in sequence.
Children learn one-to-one correspondence counting to determine the quantity.
Shapes: Children can identify, name, and describe the attributes of different forms and shapes.
Patterns: Children identify and describe patterns they observe in their environments and can create repetitive patterns.
Sorting and Matching: Children can sort items and match them according to features.
Units and Measurements: Children estimate and measure things to compare, describe, and arrange according to their attributes.
Size and Opposite Relationships: Children can organize things by size and in comparison with another (big and small, tall, and short).
Spatial Relationships: Children recognize why and how people and objects relate to one another in space, allowing them to organize things mentally and physically and navigate the environment successfully.
Drawing Inferences: Children can draw conclusions, decide, or solve problems by reviewing data available to them.
Parts identification: Children can Identify parts of a whole in isolation of the object (car wheel, dog face, etc.).
Physical & Health Development
Gross Motor: Children develop large and stronger muscles with improved balancing and flexible body coordination.
Fine Finger Motor:
Children develop strength and hand-eye coordination to control objects as they use their small muscles.
Has firm grip with using writing and drawing tools.
Body Recognition: Children are aware of the different parts of their bodies and how to navigate each piece in space.
Healthy Practices: Children develop healthy hygiene practices for themselves and the protection of others.
Self Care: Children can put on most of their clothing by themselves and wash their own hands when dirty.
Feeding: Children can make healthy food choices and feed themselves using a spoon or fork.
Science & Technology
Concept Advancement: Children move from concrete to more abstract concepts and representations.
Children observe materials, the natural environment, and processes in their play-learning environment.
Children carry out experiments to monitor results and to test their ideas.
Children classify objects, materials, people, events to the primary attributes.
Children make predictions of what they expect to happen next.
Children make inferences (conclude) based on the evaluation of data, experiences, and observations.
Health Science: Children learn about their bodies, their functions, and their basic needs in life.
Earth and Environmental Science: Children identify the weather, climate, the ecosystem (soil, water, air, temperature) and gain basic knowledge about earth preservation.
Natural Life Science: Children identify and classify organisms and acquire knowledge about plants and animal life cycles.
Physical Science: Children acquire knowledge about the properties of objects and materials and forces and motions of objects, light, heat, electricity, etc.
Technology: Children explore digital and technological-based learning tools.
Art Expression: Children develop creative and imaginative expressions from observations and imaginations into two and three-dimensional models.
Children begin to draw diagonal lines (triangles, etc. ) and draw following a model or imagination based on their ideas and interests.
Pictures drawn begins to be more recognizable.
Coloring & Painting: Children start to color and paint within the perimeters of a picture.
Music: Children enjoy music, sounds from different objects, and express their thinking and feelings through music.
Rhythmic movement: Children dance and move their bodies to the sounds they hear, observe, feel and imagine.
Dramatic-Imaginative Play: Children role-play their favorite characters, models, ideas and extend their fantasies into dramatic plays.
Object Representation: Children can draw a person showing details of the body.
Social Studies & Environmental Awareness
Social Relationships: Children become aware of family and social relationships and how the family and community social network links to their existence.
Children learn about the different people, cultures, and traditions in the community and the strength the diverse interest and cultures bring to a community.
They begin to learn to respect and appreciate diversity.
Community Helpers: Children gain knowledge of the different people in the community that keeps the community functioning.
Environmental Awareness: Children understand the importance of taking care of the environment and identify ways to do so.
History: Children can describe past events, current, and can articulate future events.
Rules and Decision Making: Children recognize that rules are necessary in social settings and for community order.
They can participate in making group-classroom rules and decisions.
Geography: Children can identify familiar locations and different types of places. They can describe their neighborhood, home address, and name of the city.